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Citation & Plagiarism

What it means to use only credible, reliable and authoritative sources in your work.

Why Should I Cite?

  • To prove that the ideas in your assignment are supported by published authors
  • To acknowledge the authors' ideas, research and opinions
  • To allow the readers (especially your instructor) to verify the sources of your research
  • To avoid plagiarism and honour the NBCC Integrity Policy
     
Did you know?

All materials you consulted need to be cited in your paper, not just books and articles. Images, presentations, podcasts, encyclopedias, audio recordings, etc. should all be cited. 

 


Q: When Should I Cite?

Each time you mention another person's ideas, research or opinions in your assignment, you need to add an in-text citation. You may paraphrase, summarize or directly quote their words, but each time, you must include the citation. Each work you use must also have a full citation at the end of your paper in a Works Cited or Reference Page. 

 

A: Whenever You Paraphrase

Paraphrasing is when you rewrite another author's passage in your own words. Generally, the length of the original text and the length of your writing are very similar. You include the same meaning and ideas as were stated in the original work, but you must significantly change the words and phrases so that they are different enough from the original. If you must include some of the same key phrases, they should be in quotation marks.

Source:
Berger, Arthur Asa. The Academic Writer's Toolkit : A User's Manual, Routledge, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/nbcc/detail.action?docID=677741. Created from nbcc on 2019-07-02 05:02:36.


Original Text:
"You can think of a thesis statement as being similar in nature to the cases prosecutors present during a trial. During the opening statement to the jury, prosecutors explain the crime the defendant has been accused of committing, what laws are involved, then provide an overview of the case they will make to prove their conclusion. In this analogy, the judge and jury are equivalent to the professors or administrators or editors who will read your text, and the prosecutors’ conclusion is equivalent to your conclusion— based on the results of your research— which you are previewing in your thesis statement." (p. 47)


Paraphrased Text:
Thesis statements are not unlike a lawyer’s opening statement in court. In front of a jury they present the case, explain relevant laws or regulations and describe how they will prove the verdict they are arguing for. Instead of proving your argument to a jury, you are presenting information for your instructors to read. Stating their recommendation of the verdict is similar to stating what your conclusion will be from the research you’ve done (Berger, 2016, p. 47).

 

A: Whenever You Summarize

If you summarize an author's work, you are taking a longer section of the original text (maybe a paragraph, a page or the entire paper) and stating the main points in your own words. Summaries contain the original author's meaning with fewer details and in fewer words.

Source:
Berger, Arthur Asa. The Academic Writer's Toolkit : A User's Manual, Routledge, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/nbcc/detail.action?docID=677741. Created from nbcc on 2019-07-02 05:02:36.


Original Text:
"You can think of a thesis statement as being similar in nature to the cases prosecutors present during a trial. During the opening statement to the jury, prosecutors explain the crime the defendant has been accused of committing, what laws are involved, then provide an overview of the case they will make to prove their conclusion. In this analogy, the judge and jury are equivalent to the professors or administrators or editors who will read your text, and the prosecutors’ conclusion is equivalent to your conclusion— based on the results of your research— which you are previewing in your thesis statement." (p. 47)


Summarized Text:
Thesis statements can be compared to a lawyer’s opening statements in court; they both present an argument, describe the how they will back up the claims and state what the result of their arguments will be (Berger, 2016, p. 47).

 

A: Whenever You Quote

You might directly quote an author when their exact words are important to your argument, when it is a well-known quotation or when paraphrasing their ideas leads to losing the precision or authority of their words. 

Source:
Berger, Arthur Asa. The Academic Writer's Toolkit : A User's Manual, Routledge, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/nbcc/detail.action?docID=677741. Created from nbcc on 2019-07-02 05:02:36.


Original Text:
"You can think of a thesis statement as being similar in nature to the cases prosecutors present during a trial. During the opening statement to the jury, prosecutors explain the crime the defendant has been accused of committing, what laws are involved, then provide an overview of the case they will make to prove their conclusion. In this analogy, the judge and jury are equivalent to the professors or administrators or editors who will read your text, and the prosecutors’ conclusion is equivalent to your conclusion— based on the results of your research— which you are previewing in your thesis statement." (p. 47)


Quoted Text:
Berger (2016) compares the thesis statement in an essay to a prosecutor’s opening statement, describing that “during the opening statement to the jury, prosecutors explain the crime the defendant has been accused of committing, what laws are involved, then provide an overview of the case they will make to prove their conclusion (p. 47)”

How Should I Cite?

Citation instructions and examples: